About Province Semnan
:: Semnan ::
Semnan Province :
Semnan province, on the southern slopes of Alborz mountain range, is located between latitudes 34 56’ and 37 13’ N. and longitudes 51 48’ and 56 57’ E.
This province is bounded on the north by Mazandaran province, on the south by Esfahan province, on the east by Khorasan province and on the west by Markazi and Tehran provinces.
It has an area of 91,554 square kilometers and according to the latest civil divisions in 1995, it has 4 counties namely Semnan , Damqan, Shahrud and Garmsar ,14 towns, 9 rural districts and 29 villages.
The center of this province is Semnan.
Cities In Semnen :
Damghan , Garmsar , Semnan , Shahrood
- Bastam Jame Mosque (Damghan)
- Chehel Dokhtaran tomb tower (Damghan)
- Cheshme Ali (Damghan)
- Damghan city caravansary (Damghan)
- Farumad Mosque (Fariumad-Semnan)
- Mausoleum of Baba Qasem (Semnan)
- Shah Abbasi Caravansary (Lasjerd village)
- Tarikhana Mosque (Damqan)
Bastam Jame Mosque :
The original construction of the mosque dates from the Seljukid period (early 5th century = 11th century A.D.), and there remains nothing but an ancient wall of this early monument today.
The brick Seljukid minaret of the mosque is, however, extant and its Kufic inscription gives us the date A.H. 14 (A.D. 1120).
In the reign of Sultan Muhammad Khodabandeh Uljeitu, the Muslim Mongol Ilkhan, other structures were added to the Seljukid constructions, including an impressive ivan built in A.H. 717 (A.D. 1317) by the Damghani architect, Muhammad ibn Hussein, whose name has been inscribed in Masjid-i-Jami, and also in the Mihrab of the adjoining mosque.
A panel on the southwest side of the entrance portal to the sanctuary of Bayazid Bastami at Bastam (A.D. 1313; A.H. 713). Two overall patterns in glazed tile adorn the wall.
Chehel Dokhtaran tomb tower :
The monument, belongs to the Seljukid period 466/1073, the height of the building is 15 meters, it is onion shaped, and it has a beautiful inscription on the outside of the tower
Cheshme Ali :
Recreation pavilion from Safavid times situated at a tree-lined pool which is fed by a spring, near Cheshmeh Ali.
Damghan city caravansary :
In the covered `bazaar` of Damqan two brick constructed caravansaries are situated. One of these is a new caravansary, rectangular in shape and with chambers surrounding it. The other is the old caravansary having shops or chambers which are currently in use.
Farumad Mosque :
The original construction of this great historic monument belongs to the 7th century A.H. (13th century A.D.). Today nothing but the ruins of that impressive structure may catch the visitor`s eye.
Mausoleum of Baba Qasem :
The Madrasa and the Mausoleum of Baba Qasem have been built in the year 741 (A.D. 1340), as indicated by the portal inscription, which gives the name of the constructor as Sulayman ibn al_hassan Talut of Damqan.
The Madrasa had been adjacent to Baba Qasem Its pyramidal brick cupola, with attractive mosaic tile decorations, ranks among Isfahan`s most remarkable historical remains. Inside the mausoleum, under the cupola, there is background of turquoise-colored tiles. An inscription in white Thulth cha.
Situated to the north of the Jameh Mosque, the mausoleum of Baba Qassem was built at around the same time, a completion date inscribed as 1340. The cupola is of a style that was to become very popular in the following century. Prior to 1928 the mausoleum was in rather indifferent condition, being used as a paper factory and then as a stable. Since, however, it has been restored to something of its former charm.
Shah Abbasi Caravansary :
This caravansary is located in the village of Lasjerd of Semnan, and is a structure related to Shah Abbas Safavid I. It has two porches and a large courtyard with 24 rooms or chambers around it.
The two porches are situated to the east and west of the structure and these are connected to the corridors. The ceilings of these porches are intricate in design and are arched or barrel - shaped. This structure has four entrances connecting the courtyard to the corridor. These entrances also have arched ceilings. Opposite this `halting places` were erected.
This structure was constructed of a mixture of gypsum and mortar, besides brick and stone, and the same has been brought under repair for several times.
Tarikhana Mosque :
Before the advent of Islam, the city of Damqan in its period of splendor, was the most important city on the main Silk Road. In the Parthian period, the city was the central capital of the Parthians. The Greek had named the city (Hegatempolis) which meant the city of a hundred gates.
The discovery of ancient monuments such as Tapeh-Hesar gives evidence of the importance of this city. Such discoveries also give evidence of a four thousand year old Aryan civilization in this region.
The intense prejudice of the Sassanids against the Parthians was the main cause behind the destruction of this immense center of civilization. Of the one hundred gates which surrounded the capital of the powerful Parthian empire, not one remains.
After the advent of Islam in Iran, the only Sassanid monument of this region, the Tarikhaneh fire temple, was turned into a mosque. Tari-khana Mosque, 8th century, is the oldest extant mosque in Iran and although in the simple Arab plan it retains many elements recalling Iran`s pre-Islamic heritage.
The massive piers and the shape of the arches follow Sassnian prototypes.
Although its foundation dates from the eighth century and it has been restored on several occasions, the mosque stillkeep its original plan and impressive simplicity.
The architectural changes of the interior of the Tarikhaneh are related to the social changes in Damqan during the fall of the Sassanid reign. The transformation of the fire temple into a mosque goes back to the end of the second century and beginning of the third century, when the House of Espahdan Bavandi of Hezarjarib- a city in the province of Mazandaran introduced Islam to it`s neighboring cities.
The mosque of Nayin is architecturally similar to this mosque. Most probably the mosque of Nayin was also a fire temple which was turned into a mosque at about the same period. The outstanding characteristics of the Tarikhaneh are it`s solidity and simplicity as well as it`s grandeur.
Twenty-six of the original forty columns are still standing and in spite of the original structure being Zoroastrian, the architects who reconstructed the interior to build a mosque, have captured the soul and simplicity of the first Islamic mosques.
The mystical atmosphere of the mosque gives evidence of the architects understanding of Islamic brotherhood and honesty. Many of the Silk Road travelers have knelt in prayer in this mosque and many will continue to do so in the future.
Damghan city :
Damghan is in the center of the province, and lies in a north-south direction. To the north is Mazandaran province, to the south are the desert region and Esfahan province. In the northern sector are the central Alborz Mountain Ranges and the remaining part comprises of desert and waste land. The city of Damqan the center of the said township which is at a distance of 335 km. from Tehran. This city is famous for its pistachio, in the country. In the mountainous area it has a moderate climate, whereas in the southern desert region it is warm. The city is also subjected to dusty, northern winds.
The construction of this city is generally related to `Hushang` ( a descendent of Kiomars ), and is therefore one of the ancient cities of Iran. In the Islamic era it was the center of the `Gomess` territory and according to some narrations, the primary construction of this city was in the vicinity of Sad Darvazeh.
Semnān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the north of the country, and its center is Semnan. The province of Semnan covers an area of 96,816 square kilometers and stretches along the Alborz mountain range and borders to Dasht-e Kavir desert in its southern parts.
Counties of the province include Semnan, Damghan, Shahrood and Garmsar. In 1996, the province had a population of about 501,000, and in 2005 Semnan city (the capital of the province) had a population of 119,778, and the city of Shahroud, which accounts for being the largest city of this province, had a population of 131,831.
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